State College- And Career- Readiness Policies And The Features That Make Their Implementation Successful

Alabama
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness”. Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR). Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “Being college- and career-ready means that a high school graduate has the English and mathematics knowledge and skills necessary to either 1) qualify for and succeed in entry level, credit-bearing courses without the need for remedial coursework; or 2) qualify for and succeed in the postsecondary job training and/or education necessary for their chosen career (i.e., technical/vocational program, community college, apprenticeship or significant on-the-job training)” (Bice, Parris, Maddox, Hannah, & Thacker, 2012). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College-and career-readiness legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career- readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career- readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://alex.state.al.us/ccrs/sites/alex.state.al.us.ccrs/files/accountability.pdf#search=accountability https://www.alsde.edu/sec/comm/Related%20Documents/Plan%202020-%20Accountability%20Overview%20July%202013.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Reward Schools, Priority Support and Focus Support schools. Failing Schools (lowest 6%) of students can leave (voucher eligibility criteria) If failing 10% of Title I money must be allocated to state-mandated intervention programs, 30-,60-90-day plans. SIG requirements: ·       Replace principal; ·       Implement rigorous, transparent equitable evals of staff; ·       Reward leaders and teachers who achieve gains; ·       High-quality PD; ·       Financial incentives, promotions; ·       Research-based instructional program; ·       Continuous use of student data; ·       Increase learning time; ·       Family and community engagement; and ·       Flexibility in staffing, time and budgets. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. CCR standards were adopted in November 2010. Withdrew membership from both SBAC and PARCC on February 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Alaska
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career- readiness”. Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college and career readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college and career ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take aligned high school courses. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & career- readiness standards legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career- readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. High school students are not required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readinessassessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to receive interventions if they score below college-readiness benchmark on mandated statewide assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://education.alaska.gov/akaccountability/#c3gtabs-1415account https://education.alaska.gov/tls/Assessments/Accountability/AKAYPWkBk_120710.pdf Source: State department of education websites. All sanctions currently frozen because of new assessment and lack of comparison data. Public report cards, determine if schools met AYP. School determined to be deficient or in crisis develop a plan and receive funds from the state established via statute. Level 5 schools are restructured— reopen as charter, replace all or most of the staff, contract with management company, turn district over to the state.  These do not apply for non-Title I schools. District-level—develop a monitoring plan. Distinguished Districts 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Alaska adopted CCR standards in June 2012. The Commissioner of Education canceled AMP administration for the 2015-16 school year on April 1, 2016. Alaska will not face penalties for canceling their standardized assessment. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison.Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Arizona
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness”. Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College ready: Graduating student is prepared for any postsecondary education or training experience, including study at two- and four-year institutions leading to a postsecondary credential (i.e., a certificate, license, associate or bachelor’s degree); has the English and mathematics knowledge and skills necessary to qualify for and succeed in entry-level, credit-bearing college courses without the need for remedial coursework. Career ready: Job candidate qualifies for a job that provides a family-sustaining wage and pathways to advancement and requires postsecondary training or education; is a high school graduate and has the English and mathematics knowledge and skills needed to qualify for and succeed in the postsecondary job training and/or education necessary for their chosen career (i.e., technical/vocational program, community college, apprenticeship or significant on-the-job training)” (Arizona Business & Education Coalition, n.d.). 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- and career- readiness legislation.  Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: Schools and Achievement Profiles (Chapter No. 226) Enacted 5/12/2016 Requires annual achievement profiles for schools, charter holders, and school districts that include progress towards college- and career-readiness. Bill Title: School Mastery of Competency Enacted: 3/29/2012 Alignment of college- and career- readiness standards to alternative pathways to high school graduation. 2
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. The Accountability System is currently under review by the Arizona State Board of Education.   0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. The Accountability System is currently under review by the Arizona State Board of Education.   0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.azed.gov/accountability/files/2015/05/2015-arizona%E2%80%99s-transition-to-a-new-accountability-system-for-public-schools-and-districts.pdf https://www.alsde.edu/ofc/osl/SIG/SIG%20Transformation%20Model.pdf Source: State department of education websites. New A-F grades, Reward Schools, Focus Schools and Priority schools, focus on persistently low graduation rates. Rewards for High Performing and High Progress. Small grants to top schools to enhance academic instruction and curriculum development. Peer mentoring of lower performing schools. The Accountability System is currently under review by the Arizona State Board of Education.   1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Arizona adopted CCR standards in June 2010. The Board of Education voted to replace them with new standards in December 2016.   Arizona withdrew from the PARCC in May 2014. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state ruled that opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Arkansas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness”. Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. ’College- and career-readiness’ means the acquisition of skills a student needs to be successful in future endeavors, including:

Successfully completing credit-bearing, first-year courses at a postsecondary institution; and 1.     Embarking on a “chosen career” Source: AR SB 814
1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & career- readiness legislation dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: Arkansas College and Career Readiness Planning Program Enacted 4/2/2015 Expands the Arkansas College- and Career-Readiness Planning Program by allowing public schools to use the Aspire assessment system as an alternative to the Act Explore and Act Plan or PSAT. Bill Title: Universal Act Assessment Program Act Enacted: 4/22/2013 Amends “Smart Core” to read as The college- and career-readiness curriculum by that name under the rules of the State Board of Education, or a college- and career-readiness curriculum that is established by rules of the state board in coordination with the Department of Higher Education. Bill Title: College- and Career- Readiness Enacted: 4/2/2013 Establishes the Council on Postsecondary Education and Career Readiness (the Council) to facilitate the collaboration of kindergarten, elementary, secondary, and postsecondary educational institutions in Arkansas in developing college- and career-readiness standards that align school curriculum and graduation standards with postsecondary education requirements and business community expectations for employability. Requires college- and career-readiness standards to be implemented with the understanding that until July 1, 2022, interim high school graduation standards may be used until the high school graduation standards adopted by the State Board of Education are equal to the college- and career-readiness standards. Bill Title: School Code Enacted 4/22/2013 Concerns public schools, institutions of higher education, and remediation; requires the Department of Education and the Department of Higher Education to jointly study and report on remediation issues, including the cost of testing and remediation of entering freshmen, minimum scores on a college- and career- readiness assessment that are required for placement in college-level credit courses, and other matters. 4
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take PLAN or PSAT in 10th grade. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students who score below the CCR benchmark are required to take transition math and English courses. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. http://www.arkansased.gov/public/userfiles/Public_School_Accountability/School_Performance/ESEA_Focus_Priority_2015.pdf http://www.arkansased.gov/divisions/public-school-accountability/federal-programs/School%20Improvement%20Grants Priority Schools and Focus Schools. Lowest 5% receive SIG funds for a school intervention model. Removed Title I spending requirements (percentages). Failing districts assigned a site-based SIS after meeting with principals and superintendent and the state commissioner, PD plan, 3-year priority improvement plan with measurable objectives. Weekly reports to ADE, quarterly reports to State Board. Continued failing lose flexibility in use of state and/or federal categorical dollars. Convert to charter, close schools, replace principal, extend time, screen existing staff, rehire no more than half.   4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Arkansas adopted CCR standards in July 2010, which have been revised for the 2017-2018 school year. The state contract with PARCC ended in June 2015. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. State ruled that opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
California
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness”. Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. California does not currently have a statewide definition of what it means to be “college- and career-ready”—recognizing that college- and career- preparation are not identical in every sense. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. California state law describes minimum high school courses that students must pass to be eligible for high school graduation, as specified in Education Code Section 51225.3. California state law provides flexibility to local districts in selecting curriculum that is aligned to academic content standards adopted by the State Board of Education. California has adopted statewide standards that will ensure that students are prepared for college and careers through Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English language arts (ELA)/literacy and mathematics (initially adopted in 2010 and revised in 2013), and California’s Next Generation Science Standards (adopted in 2013). 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college-and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016 Bill Title: Academic Content Standards: Review Commission Enacted: 9/27/2012 This bill authorizes the Superintendent of Public Instruction (SPI) to recommend, and the State Board of Education (SBE) to adopt the Common Core college- and career- readiness standards. This bill also authorizes the review and modification of standards for 8th-grade mathematics, as specified. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Since 2015, all Grade 11 students must take Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) summative assessments in ELA/literacy and mathematics as part of the California Assessment on Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP), known as the Early Assessment Program (EAP). The resulting EAP test scores serve as an early indicator of readiness for college-level coursework in ELA/literacy and mathematics. California has not adopted a specific assessment for career readiness. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. As described above, all students must participate in the EAP in Grade 11 as part of the Smarter Balanced summative assessments. The EAP test results inform students if they are ready for college-level work in ELA/literacy and mathematics by reporting one of four following achievement levels: Standard Exceeded, Standard Met, Standard Nearly Met, or Standard Not Met. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. California adopted a College/Career Indicator as part of the accountability system during the September 2016 State Board meeting. The indicator takes into account high school diploma, SBAC achievement levels, CTE Career Pathway Completion, AP Exams, Dual Enrollment (Academic and CTE), and other important measures.  2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. California adopted a College/Career Indicator as part of the accountability system during the September 2016 State Board meeting.  The indicator takes into account high school diploma, SBAC achievement levels, CTE Career Pathway Completion, AP Exams, Dual Enrollment (Academic and CTE), and other important measures.  1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/ac/ti/schoolpireq.asp Source: State department of education websites. Support for all LEAs and schools (Level 1): ·       Various state and local agencies provide an array of support resources, tools, and voluntary technical assistance that all LEAs may use to improve student performance at the LEA and school level and narrow disparities among student groups across the LCFF priorities, including recognition for success and the ability to share promising practices. Differentiated Assistance (Level 2): ·       County superintendents (or the Superintendent of Public Instruction/California Department of Education, when provided to county offices of education) and the California Collaborative for Educational Excellence provide differentiated assistance for LEAs and schools, in the form of individually designed technical assistance, to address identified performance issues, including significant disparities in performance among student groups.  Intensive Intervention (Level 3): ·       The Superintendent of Public Instruction may require more intensive interventions for LEAs and/or schools with persistent performance issues and a lack of improvement over a specified time period. California Gold Ribbon Schools Program: The California Gold Ribbon Schools Award was created to honor schools while the California Distinguished Schools Program is on hiatus as California transitions to new assessment and accountability systems. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. California adopted CCR standards for ELA and Mathematics in August 2010. In March 2012, the State Board of Education adopted the CCSS systems implementation plan as a living document that identifies major phases and activities in the implementation of the CCSS throughout California's educational system. Common Core State Standards for ELA, modified March 2013. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, modified January 2013. In 2015, California administered the first operational SBAC summative assessments as part of the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) system.  2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The federal ESSA law minimally requires 95% of students statewide to participate in state-administered annual summative assessments. California law requires school districts to notify parents of their right to opt their students out of annual summative testing, and federal ESSA law now allows for this as well. 0
Colorado
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career- readiness”. Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR). Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. "Colorado high school graduates demonstrate the knowledge and skills (competencies) needed to succeed in postsecondary settings and to advance in career pathways as lifelong learners and contributing citizens.” Source: Adopted by the Colorado State Board of Education and Colorado Commission on Higher Education (Winter 2016). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career- ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. H.B. 15-1323 requires a 10th -grade state assessment that is aligned to both the Colorado Academic Standards and the 11th-grade college entrance exam. There are no specific legislated course requirements in Colorado, other than one course in Civics: “History and civil government of the United States and of the state of Colorado, pursuant section 22-1-104 (3)(a) C.R.S. Each district sets its graduation requirements based on many factors, including Graduation Guidelines, Colorado Academic Standards in 10 content areas, 21st Century skills, and Individual Career and Academic Plan (ICAP). Districts have also built their graduation requirements based on higher education standards, competency-based programs, and the skills that are defined by employers and industries. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. H.B. 15-1323 requires both a college entrance exam be administered to all 11th graders and that an assessment aligned to both the CAS and the college entrance exam be administered to all 10th graders. Colorado’s Graduation Guidelines go into effect for the class of 2021.  Local school boards and districts select from a Menu of College and Career-Ready Demonstrations that their students must use to show what they know or can do in order to graduate from high school. And students must demonstrate college- or career-readiness in English and math based on at least one measure. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readinessassessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Local school boards and districts select from a Menu of College and Career-Ready Demonstrations that their students must use to show what they know or can do in order to graduate from high school. And students must demonstrate college- or career-readiness in English and math based on at least one measure. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. We also include a matriculation rate (the % of students who enroll in two-year, four-year or CTE in the semester after graduation). 1.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. We also include a matriculation rate (the % of students who enroll in  two-year,  four-year or CTE in the semester after graduation). 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.cde.state.co.us/accountability/accountabilitysupplement-0 Source: State department of educationwebsites. We have an accountability clock, where schools/district cannot remain at a Priority Improvement/Turnaround rating for more than five years without a significant action taken (list of actions included in state law). State required turnaround strategies: Lead turnaround partner that uses research-based strategies, reorg. structure, create innovation schools, hiring management company, charter conversation. Many reward designations schools can receive, highest is ESEA Reward School. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials In 2009, Colorado adopted aligned preschool through postsecondary standards leading to postsecondary and workforce readiness in the following content areas: comprehensive health; dance; drama and theater arts; mathematics; music; physical education; reading, writing and communicating; science; social studies; visual arts; and world languages.  Colorado incorporated the CCSS in its mathematics and reading, writing, and communicating standards in 2010. New CMAS science and social studies assessments were administered for the first time in 2014. New CMAS ELA and math assessments were administered for the first time in 2015. PSAT10 was administered for the first time in 2016. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. H.B. 15-1323 states (8) a) Each local education provider shall adopt and implement a written policy and procedure by which a student's parent may excuse the student from participating in one or more of the state assessments administered pursuant to section 27 22-7-1006.3.  b) If a parent excuses his or her student from participating in a state assessment, a local education provider shall not impose negative consequences, including prohibiting school attendance, imposing an unexcused absence, or prohibiting participation in extracurricular activities, on the student or on the parent.  c) A local education provider shall not impose an unreasonable burden or requirement on a student that would discourage the student from taking a state assessment or encourage the student's parent to excuse the student from taking the state assessment. 0
Connecticut
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The state has endorsed the Association for Career and Technical Education and National Association of State Directors of Career Technical Education Consortium definition of college- and career-readiness, which states that readiness “involves three major skill areas: core academic skills and the ability to apply those skills to concrete situations to function in the workplace and in routine daily activities; employability skills (such as critical thinking and responsibility) that are essential in any career area; and technical, job-specific skills related to a specific career pathway. These skills have been emphasized across numerous pieces of research and allow students to enter true career pathways that offer family-sustaining wages and opportunities for advancement” (U.S. Department of Education, 2012a). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in CTE classes, WorkKeys assessments, or job training programs. 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/pressroom/ct_launches_next_generation_accountability_system_030216.pdf http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/commissionersnetwork/commissioners_network_cohort_3_application_hs.pdf Source: State department of education websites Schools of Excellence   Commissioner's Network for Category 4 and 5 schools   The Turnaround Committee, in consultation with the School Governance Council, shall develop the Turnaround Plan in accordance with C.G.S. § 10-223h(d) and the guidelines issued by the Commissioner.

Accordingly, the Turnaround Plan will: 1. Provide a rigorous needs analysis informed by the operations and instructional audit. 2. Identify an evidence-based turnaround model, aligned to school needs and growth areas. 3. Provide robust strategies to secure, support, develop, evaluate, and retain top talent. 4. Summarize the school’s academic model, including curricula, assessments, and data-driven instruction. 5. Outline a comprehensive approach to build a positive school culture and climate. 6. Develop operational structures to effectively utilize time and resources.
3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Connecticut adopted CCR standards in July 2010. On September 7, 2016, a Connecticut Superior Court deemed the state funding formula to be unconstitutional and asked the state to overhaul its education system. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Delaware
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “Each Delaware student will graduate college- and career-ready. Students will be prepared to successfully plan and pursue an education and career path aligned to their personal goals, with the ability to adapt to innovate as job demands change. Students will graduate with strong academic knowledge, the behaviors and skills with which to apply their knowledge, and the ability to collaborate and communicate effectively. Each student should be an independent learner, and have respect for a diverse society and a commitment to responsible citizenship” (Center on Education Policy, 2013). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison., Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://regulations.delaware.gov/AdminCode/title14/100/103.shtml Source: State department of education websites Long list of corrective action requirements but only one is required:  extend the year or day, decrease school level authority, appoint outside expert, restructure internal org., replace relevant school staff, new curriculum. One of the following:  flexible funding, performance incentives, renegotiate collective bargaining, decrease class size, implement comprehensive instructional reform, change scheduling, comm. support. Also creates Reward Schools 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Delaware adopted CCR standards in August 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Washington
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “The purpose of the diploma is to declare that a student is ready for success in postsecondary education, gainful employment, and citizenship, and is equipped with the skills to be a lifelong learner. The diploma represents a balance between the personalized education needs of each student and society’s needs, and reflects, at its core, the state’s basic education goals.” Source: Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. (2013). ESEA flexibility request. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/eseaflex/approved-requests/warequestamended022713.pdf 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. An intervention is under development. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework. 1
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.k12.wa.us/bulletinsmemos/Bulletins2015/B033-15AttachB.pdf Source: State department of education websites. 5-tier response, highest step involves firing of some staff, new curriculum, outside expert, but vague and TBD. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Washington adopted CCR standards in July 2011.
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Florida
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “Students are considered college- and career-ready when they have the knowledge, skills, and academic preparation needed to enroll and succeed in introductory college credit-bearing courses within an associate or baccalaureate degree program without the need for remediation. These same attributes and levels of achievement are needed for entry into and success in postsecondary workforce education or directly into a job that offers gainful employment and career advancement.” Source:
Florida Department of Education. (n.d.). Florida College System: College and career readiness. Tallahassee, FL: Author. Retrieved from http://www.fldoe.org/fcs/collegecareerreadiness.asp
1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take the Common Placement Test in Grade 11. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Identified 12th graders must complete postsecondary preparatory instruction before graduation. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance in advanced coursework. 2
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Florida Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook (MS … http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=&URL=1000-1099/1008/Sections/1008.33.html Source: State department of education websites. School Recognition Program provides up to $100 for each FTE student in high performing districts. Mandates school choice, opportunity scholarships, NCLB Options: district-managed school, reassign students, close and reopen as a charter, outside contractor, hybrid policies. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Florida adopted CCR standards in July 2010 and were revised in February 2014. Florida withdrew from PARCC in September 2013. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Georgia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Scale
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR). Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. College- and career-readiness is “the level of achievement required in order for a student to enroll in two- or four-year colleges and universities and technical colleges without remediation, fully prepared for college-level work and careers. This means that all students graduate from high school with both rigorous content knowledge and the ability to apply that knowledge” (Georgia Department of Education, n.d.). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state requires an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures completion of career awareness lessons and portfolios in elementary school; completion of career inventories and an individual graduation plan in middle schools; and completion of CTAE pathways and earning credentials in high school. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://gosa.georgia.gov/accountability https://gosa.georgia.gov/sites/gosa.georgia.gov/files/IE2_State_Law_2013.pdf Source: State department of education websites SSAS Rewards, Priority, Focus and Reward Schools Failing school students are eligible for opportunity scholarships. Loss of governance = charter conversion, outside contractor, for profit or nonprofit, successful other school system. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Georgia adopted CCR standards in July 2010 and renamed them in February 2015. Georgia withdrew from PARCC in September 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Neither Georgia law nor State Board of Education rules allow opting out of state and federal required assessments 1
Hawaii
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “Students, who are prepared for meaningful engagement in college, career, and community, have successfully:
- Achieved proficiency in essential content knowledge - Mastered key learning skills and cognitive strategies - Acquired practical knowledge, enabling successful transitions from high school to college and career; and - Built a strong foundation of identity through an ongoing process of wayfinding to engage in local, national, and global contexts.

By ‘students,’ we mean youth enrolled in Hawai‘i’s public education system recognizing that college, career, and community readiness is a lifelong process that begins with early childhood learning. By ‘college,’ we mean two- and four-year postsecondary institutions, trade schools, and technical schools. By ‘career,’ we mean a pathway of employment that provides a family-sustaining wage. By ‘community,’ we mean the set of interdependent relationships among physical, social and/ or cultural groups linked by a shared responsibility for one another, the natural world, and local and global well-being.

Essential Content Knowledge: Students have the content knowledge and skills to be eligible to enroll in credit-bearing, postsecondary courses, workforce training, and/or apprenticeship programs without the need for remediation, and complete them successfully. Transitional Skills: Students are able to navigate through postsecondary program selection and admissions, possess the knowledge and skills to enter into and thrive in a family-sustaining career pathway, and utilize strategies to resolve problems and improve academic performance. Wayfinding: Students are able to identify their kuleana and work hard to fulfill these responsibilities to their families, ‘ãina, community, and future and past generations. Students know what makes their communities unique and become more involved through opportunities such as volunteer service, ecological stewardship, and civic engagement. Students understand and can comfortably interface with diverse perspectives, cultures, and worldviews to flourish in and sustain local and global communities” (Hawaii P–20 Partnerships for Education, 2013).
2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. High school graduation requirements in Hawaii public schools set a rigorous standard of learning that enables all students to: ● Realize their individual goals and aspirations; ● Possess the attitudes, knowledge, and skills necessary to contribute positively and compete in a global society; ● Exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship; and  ● Pursue postsecondary education and/or careers without need for remediation. For additional information about college- and career-readiness requirements for graduation in Hawai‘i you can review the following: Hawai‘i State Board of Education Policies: ● Career and Technical Education Policy http://boe.hawaii.gov/policies/Board%20Poli cies/Career%20and%20Technical%20Educati on.pdf  ● Graduation Requirements http://boe.hawaii.gov/policies/Board%20Poli cies/High%20School%20Graduation%20Requi rements%20and%20Commencement.pdf ● Hawai‘i Education Programs http://boe.hawaii.gov/policies/2100series/Pa ges/2104.aspx Hawai‘i State Department of Education Guidelines:  ● College and Career Readiness http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/Teaching AndLearning/CollegeAndCareerReadiness/Pag es/home.aspx ● High School Graduation Requirements http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/Teaching AndLearning/StudentLearning/GraduationReq uirements/Pages/home.asp 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college and career readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), College & Career Readiness Standards Legislation, retrieved September 1, 2016 Bill that aligns to WIOA: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2016/bills /GM1158_.pdf House Resolution that acknowledges Waipahu’s Nationally Recognized Career Pathways: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2016/bills /HR173_.pdf EDN200, page 229 Add 2 STEM positions for Workforce Development Pilot (one 12-month resource teacher and one 10-month resource manager). EDN300, page 232, add funds for alternative teacher route programs (e.g. career professionals who did not go through teacher certification route): http://capitol.hawaii.gov/session2016/workshee ts/HB1700ExecHD1SD1CD1Worksheets.pdf K-12 Agriculture Workforce Development Pipeline: http://www.capitol.hawaii.gov/session2016/bills /HB1997_CD1_.pdf 4
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. ACT is administered statewide to all 11th-grade students: http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/DOE%20Fo rms/Testing/testing1sheet.pdf 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The University of Hawai‘i has a Smarter Balanced Assessment (SBA) placement policy for students meeting the achievement standard for ELA and math assessments. HIDOE is currently working with Hawaii P-20 (our cross-agency longitudinal data partnership) to develop a college transition course for students that score below 3 on the SBA. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation in advanced coursework, performance on a college entry exam Strive HI System: http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/DOE%20Fo rms/StriveHI2016/StatewideSnapshot15-16.pdf 1
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Starting with the 2015-2016 SY, we have included CTE Concentrator counts in the school accountability system and are collaborating across state agencies under the New Skills for Youth (NSFY) grant to determine other career-focused accountability measures (such as industry-recognized credentials, assessments that measure soft/employability skills, participation in workforce experience opportunities such as internships and shadowing, etc.). 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://ecs.force.com/mbdata/mbprofall?Rep=HSA03 http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/VisionForSuccess/AdvancingEducation/StriveHIPerformanceSystem/Pages/Strive-HI-System-Steps.aspx Source: State department of education websites Restructuring required after Year 5. After Year 4:       Implementing a new curriculum       Appointing an outside expert as advisor       Extending the school day or year       Restructuring the school. Strive HI system groups schools into 5 categories—recognition for top 5%. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Hawai’i adopted CCR standards in July 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Hawaii does not have an opt-out policy and expects all students enrolled to participate in the required assessments. http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/DOE Forms/Testing/testing1sheet.pdf 1
Idaho
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR). Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “Content standards that define what students are expected to know and be able to do to enter and advance in college and/or their careers comprise the foundation of a program of study. Rigorous college- and career- readiness standards should: ·       Be developed and continually validated in collaboration with secondary, postsecondary, and industry partners. ·       Incorporate essential knowledge and skills (i.e., academic skills, communication, and problem-solving), which students must master regardless of their chosen career area or program of study. ·       Provide the same rigorous knowledge and skills in English and mathematics that employers and colleges expect of high school graduates. ·       Incorporate industry-recognized technical standards that are valued in the workplace. ·       To the extent practicable, be internationally benchmarked so that all students are prepared to succeed in a global economy” (Idaho Professional-Technical Education, n.d.). 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career- readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: Testing Requirements Enacted: 4/10/2015 Requires the flexibility document to include testing for Grades 3 through 8 and once in high school at the minimum, (a) a testing schedule for pupils in Grade 11 who shall take a college- or career-readiness assessment, (b) a provision stating that LEAs may conduct additional formative or pre- and posttesting as needed. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison., Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments but districts may deliver remediation to students scoring below a 4 on SBAC. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://boardofed.idaho.gov/k_12/accountability/Proposed%20Administrative%20Rule.pdf?cache=1473525977379 https://boardofed.idaho.gov/board_initiatives/Education_Improvement_Taskforce/Task%20Force%20for%20Improving%20Education_Final_09-06-13.pdf?cache=1473526074403 Source: State department of education websites. Removal of reward status for school and measures schools based on local strategic planning—only interact at the superintendent level. Changes made at the leadership level but not micromanagement. 1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Idaho adopted CCR standards in January 2011. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Illinois
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The initial framework from the September 14-15 Illinois State Board Meeting (input is still being taken on the framework): Students achieve College- and Career-Readiness if they meet the academic and standardized testing benchmarks: ·       GPA 2.8 out of 4.0 ·       Readiness college entrance score on the SAT AND two or more of the following academic benchmarks or industry credential: ·       Industry credential ·       Dual credit career pathway course ·       Advanced placement exam ·       Advanced placement course ·       Dual credit college English and/or Math (A, B, or C) ·       Algebra II (A, B, or C) ·       International Baccalaureate Exam (4+) AND two or more from the following behavioral and experiential benchmarks: ·       90% attendance ·       25 hours of Community Service (military service) ·       Workplace learning experience ·       Two or more organized co-curricular activities (including language and fine arts) 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: School Code Enacted: 7/29/2015 Provides that the State Board of Education shall assess high school students using a college- and career-readiness determination that shall be accepted by this State's public institutions of higher education for the purpose of student application or admissions consideration. Bill Title: School Code Enacted: 8/15/2014 requires SBE to administer no more than 3 assessments, per student, of ELA and mathematics for students in a secondary education program and requires one of these assessments to include a college- and career-readiness determination. 2
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison.  Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison.  Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. This will be determined once the CCR framework has been finalized.
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance in CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/fulltext.asp?DocName=010500050K2-3.25o http://www.isbe.net/nclb/pdfs/accountability_workbook10.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Spotlight Schools and rewards allowed in the School Code. Sanctions include public school choice, private school choice and supplemental services. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Illinois adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Indiana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College- and career-readiness means an individual has the knowledge, skills and abilities to succeed in postsecondary education and economically viable career opportunities. Additionally, Public Law 31-2014 [SEA 91] defines college- and career-readiness educational standards as ‘the standards that a high school graduate must meet to obtain the requisite knowledge and skill to transition without remediation to postsecondary education or training, and ultimately into a sustainable career.” Source: Indiana Department of Education. (2014). Indiana academic standards: English/language arts: Grades 6–12. Indianapolis, IN: Author. Retrieved from http://www.in.gov/sboe/files/2014-04-15_6-12_ELA_draft_041414a.pdf 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college and career ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NSCL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: Career and Technical Education Diploma Enacted: 3/24/2014 Directs the Indiana Career Council to establish a subcommittee to make recommendations to the state board in developing the requirements for the career and technical education diploma; requires that the requirements for the diploma meet the college- and career-readiness education standards adopted by the state board. BIll Title: Education Standards Enacted 3/24/2014 Requires the state board shall adopt Indiana college- and career- readiness educational standards; voids educational standards adopted before July 1, 2014. Bill Title: Various Education Matters Enacted: 5/13/2013 Provides that after May 15, 2013, the State Board of Education (State Board) may take no further actions to implement as standards for the state or direct the SEA to implement any Common Core Standards until the State Board conducts a comprehensive evaluation of the Common Core Standards; provides that, before July 1, 2014, the State Board shall adopt College and Career Readiness Educational Standards; requires the State Board to implement educational standards that use the Common Core Standards as the base model for academic standards to the extent necessary to comply with federal standards to receive a flexibility waiver; requires that, before July 1, 2013, the SEA to provide a written evaluation of the Common Core Standards to the State Board and the chairperson of the legislative study committee established to study the Common Core Standards and other standards; replaces the definition of “textbook” with a definition of “curricular materials”; requires SEA to determine the process for evaluating the curricular materials’ alignment to academic standards and the appropriateness of the reading level of the curricular materials; requires SEA to describe the method used to evaluate curricular materials; changes the type of curricular subject matter that SEA must review to show that the curricular material is aligned to academic standards; repeals the requirement that a superintendent of a school corporation forward a list of the curricular materials selected by the superintendent. 3
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take assessment and below proficient students need to take ACCUPLACER exam to see if they need remediation. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework. 3
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.in.gov/legislative/iac/iac_title?iact=511 Source: State department of education websites. Sanctions—merger with nearby school that’s higher performing, assign a special management team, implement department recommendations, implement other options expressed at public hearing, including closing the school, revise school ops, PD, intervene with individual teachers and admins. Note: Indiana may delay penalizing schools based on accountability ratings: http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/state_edwatch/2016/11/with_just_half_of_its_students_passing_indiana_officials_considers_holding_off_on_istep.html 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Indiana adopted CCR standards in August 2010 and withdrew from the CCSS consortium in 2014. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Washington
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “The purpose of the diploma is to declare that a student is ready for success in postsecondary education, gainful employment, and citizenship, and is equipped with the skills to be a lifelong learner. The diploma represents a balance between the personalized education needs of each student and society’s needs, and reflects, at its core, the state’s basic education goals.” Source: Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. (2013). ESEA flexibility request. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/eseaflex/approved-requests/warequestamended022713.pdf 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. An intervention is under development. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework. 1
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.k12.wa.us/bulletinsmemos/Bulletins2015/B033-15AttachB.pdf Source: State department of education websites. 5-tier response, highest step involves firing of some staff, new curriculum, outside expert, but vague and TBD. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Washington adopted CCR standards in July 2011.
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Kansas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College- and Career-Readiness means an individual has the academic preparation, cognitive preparation, technical skills, and employability skills to be successful in postsecondary education, in the attainment of an industry recognized certification or in the workforce, without the need for remediation.” Source: Kansas State Department of Education. (2013). Kansas college and career ready. Retrieved from http://www.ksde.org/Portals/0/Learning%20Services%20Documents/College%20and%20Career%20Ready.pdf 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison.  Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.ksde.org/Portals/0/SES/KIAS/KIAS%20Overview.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Can withhold funds or direct how funds are used, referral to Kansas Attorney General for action.  Different options allowed including conversion.  Principal must be fired but no automatic loss of local governance.  Rewards:  districts may use 50% maintenance of effort (MOE) reductions, official banner recognition for website. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Kansas adopted CCR standards in October 2010. They withdrew from SBAC in December 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Kentucky
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The state measures college- and career-readiness by assessing student performance on the ACT, completion of college placement tests or attainment of career academic and technical benchmarks. 0.5
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Kentucky Senate Bill 1 Mandated new college- and career- readiness standards and accountability system. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take ACT in Grade 11 and optional Kentucky Online Testing to determine college readiness in math, reading, and writing. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Identified 12th graders must take transitional course or receive an academic intervention. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/statutes/statute.aspx?id=3556 http://www.fairtest.org/kentuckys-assessment-program Source: State department of education websites. Consequences include school/district improvement plans, eligibility to receive SIP funds, student transfer to successful schools. Districts in the top 5% are rewarded. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Kentucky adopted CCR standards in February 2010. KDE hosted open comment period and Kentucky Academic Standards are now under review. 2.5
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed without state consequence to the district. 1
Louisiana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career- readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take the ACT in Grade 11. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison.  Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.louisianabelieves.com/docs/default-source/louisiana-believes/essa-statewide-listening-tour-presentation.pdf?sfvrsn=6 Source: State department of education websites. Transfer to Recovery School Districts (most schools in New Orleans are a part of this). Recognized with Good or Excellent status. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Louisiana adopted CCR standards in July 2010 and revised their standards in 2015. They withdrew from PARCC in June 2014.  1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Maine
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career- readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: Digital Content Library for Education Enacted: 6/18/2015 Creates a digital content library to house a collection of high-quality digital educational content and learning resources aligned with the State's educational initiatives, including college- and career- readiness and student achievement in the system of standards and assessment. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://maine.gov/doe/accountability/ Source: State department of education websites. Lowest 25% of elementary school IDed (not high schools). Monitor Schools are given intensive supports, school improvement plan but no mandatory parameters. 1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Maine adopted CCR standards in April 2011. They withdrew from SBAC in June 2015. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Maryland
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College- and career-readiness includes mastery of rigorous content knowledge and the abilities to apply that knowledge through higher-order skills to demonstrate success in college and careers. This includes the ability to think critically and solve problems, communicate effectively, work collaboratively, and be self-directed in the learning process. More specifically, a student who is college- and career-ready should: be prepared to succeed in credit-bearing postsecondary introductory general education courses or in industry certification programs without needing remediation; be competent in the Skills for Success (SFS) (includes learning, thinking, communication, technology, and interpersonal skills.); have identified potential career goal(s) and understand the steps to achieve them; and be skilled enough in communication to seek assistance as needed, including student financial assistance” (U.S. Department of Education, 2012b). 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Graduation requirements for all students include courses that are aligned to college- and career-readiness standards. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Senate Bill 740—College- and Career-Readiness and College Completion Act of 2013- Approved by the Governor 5/16/13 (Chapter 533). 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. http://archives.marylandpublicschools.org/NR/rdonlyres/6C9444F6-5522-4D9B-B13F-EA7FC25BAB9D/33360/ESEAFlexibilityPriorityFocusRewardSchools1.pdf Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Maryland has established a number of 11th grade assessment options for college- and career-readiness. Students who do not meet any of these criteria are required to take transition courses and to be reassessed. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance in advanced coursework. 2
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. State continues to identify priority schools. 1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Maryland adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. Local Education Agencies and schools are required to meet the 95% participation rate. 1
Massachusetts
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “Massachusetts students who are college- and career-ready will demonstrate the knowledge, skills and abilities that are necessary to successfully complete entry-level, credit-bearing college courses, participate in certificate or workplace training programs, and enter economically viable career pathways. In order to meet this goal, the Commonwealth has defined a set of learning competencies, intellectual capacities, and experiences essential for all students to become lifelong learners; positive contributors to their families, workplaces, and communities; and successfully engaged citizens of a global 21st Century. Beyond achieving college-and career- readiness levels of competence in English Language Arts/Literacy and mathematics, all high school students should develop a foundation in the academic disciplines identified in the MassCore course of study: (1) build competencies for workplace readiness as articulated in the Integrating College and Career Task Force Report, and (2) focus on applying academic strategies to problem solving in diverse professional and life contexts, appropriate to individual student goals. Massachusetts will use its 2011 curriculum frameworks, which include the Common Core State Standards, as the basis for an educational program that provides students with the academic knowledge, skills and experience. Learning Competencies: College- and career-ready students in English Language Arts/Literacy will be academically prepared to: -        Read and comprehend a range of sufficiently complex texts independently; -         Write effectively when using and/or analyzing sources; -        Build and present knowledge through research and the integration, comparison, and synthesis of ideas; and -        Use context to determine the meaning of words and phrases. College- and career-ready students in Mathematics will be academically prepared to: -        Solve problems involving the major content with connections to the mathematical practices; -        Solve problems involving the additional and supporting content with connections to the mathematical practices; -        Express mathematical reasoning by constructing mathematical arguments and critiques; and -        Solve real-world problems, engaging particularly in the modeling practice.
Work Ethic and Professionalism: -         Attendance and punctuality expected by the workplace; -        Workplace appearance appropriate for position and duties; -        Accepting direction and constructive criticism with a positive attitude and response; -         Motivation and taking initiative, taking projects from initiation to completion; -        Understanding workplace culture, policy, and safety, including respecting confidentiality and workplace ethics; -        Effective communication and interpersonal skills; -        Oral and written communication appropriate to the workplace; -        Listening attentively and confirming understanding; and -        Interacting with co-workers, individually and in teams. In high school, students should demonstrate: -        Higher order thinking skills of analysis, synthesis, and evaluation; -        The ability to think critically, coherently, and creatively; -        The ability to direct and evaluate their own learning, be aware of resources available to support their learning, and have the confidence to access these resources when needed; and -        Motivation, intellectual curiosity, flexibility, discipline, self-advocacy, responsibility, and reasoned beliefs” (Massachusetts Department of Education, 2013).
2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. State takeover power: Level 5 is the most serious category in Massachusetts' accountability system, representing receivership. Districts are independently eligible for placement in Level 5 on the basis of a district review; the report of an appointed accountability monitor; a follow-up review report; quantitative indicators set out in state regulations; or failure of a Level 4 district to meet the ESE-approved benchmarks or goals in its improvement plan in a timely manner. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Massachusetts adopted CCR standards in July 2010. They will administer a revised assessment, the “Next Generation MCAS” starting Spring 2017. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Michigan
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR). Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “We define [college- and career- readiness] as student preparation that is adequate to allow a student to pass first-year technical training and first-year college courses in core areas without remediation. Our state is preparing students not just for the opportunities we know about today, but also for the economic and intellectual challenges of the future” (U.S. Department of Education, 2012c). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college and career readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No state legislation. 0

High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Michigans_Approach_to_ESSA_528680_7.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Partnership model with no mandatory requirements Michigan law allows the state to takeover schools based on A-F accountability ratings 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Michigan adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Minnesota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. For purposes of statewide accountability, “career- and college-readiness” means a high school graduate has the knowledge, skills, and competencies to successfully pursue a career pathway, including postsecondary credit leading to a degree, diploma, certificate, or industry-recognized credential and employment. Students who are career- and college-ready are able to successfully complete credit-bearing coursework at a two- or four-year college or university or other credit-bearing postsecondary program without the need for remediation. Source: Minnesota Department of Education. (2014–2015). Building Pathways to Postsecondary 2.0 Summits. Retrieved from http://readysetgo.state.mn.us/rsgprod/groups/rsgcommunications/documents/basic/000500.pdf 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-ready” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.bscpcenter.org/resources/publications/Solutions_Issue_6_Summary_of_States_Strategies_for_ESEA_Priority_Schools_12-20131.pdf http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/dse/essa/ Source: State department of education websites. Rewards status but no mandated turnaround measure, principals can stay in place. 1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Minnesota adopted math CCR standards in 2007 and ELA standards in 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Mississippi
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career- readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Beginning in the 2014-2015 school term, all juniors take the ACT as a measure of college readiness. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. While not mandated, the use of SREB Literacy Ready and SREB Math Ready courses is strongly encouraged for students who do not meet the CCR benchmark. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. National credentials are included in the acceleration component of the accountability system. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.mde.k12.ms.us/docs/school-improvement-library/osi__webinar-training-revised__focus-schools.pdf?sfvrsn=2 Source: State department of education websites. Funding restricted, but district admins work with principals = turnaround partnership, no mandatory activities. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Mississippi adopted CCR standards in June 2010 and revisions were made to the standards in the fall of 2015. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Missouri
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College- and career-readiness means that a high school graduate has the necessary English and mathematics knowledge and skills—including, but not limited to, reading, writing, communications, teamwork, critical thinking and problem solving—either to qualify for and succeed in entry-level, credit-bearing two- or four-year college courses without the need for remedial coursework, or in workforce training programs for his/her chosen career that offer competitive, livable salaries above the poverty line, offer opportunities for career advancement, and are in a growing or sustainable industry” (Center on Education Policy, 2013). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student performance on advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.bscpcenter.org/resources/publications/Solutions_Issue_6_Summary_of_States_Strategies_for_ESEA_Priority_Schools_12-20131.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Turnaround principles require principal and educator evaluation but no mandatory activities. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Missouri adopted CCR standards in June 2010 and revised their standards in 2015. They withdrew from SBAC in July 2015.    1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Montana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The state does not have a definition for college- and career- readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. Schools of Promise Initiative for turnaround schools but only federally funded with no state rewards or sanctions. 1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Montana adopted CCR standards in November 2011    3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Nebraska
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “A career-ready person capitalizes on personal strengths, talents, education and experiences to bring value to the workplace and the community through his/her performance, skill, diligence, ethics, and responsible behavior… When students are career ready, they are prepared for the next step in their lives—whether that means getting their first job or beginning their college ‘career’ (which eventually leads to the workplace as well). Being career ready also means being ready for life” (Nebraska Department of Education, 2009). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://aquestt.com/resources/ Source: State department of education websites. Supportive structures and funding requirements but no turnaround specifics for Priority Schools. 1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Nebraska adopted CCR ELA standards in 2014 and math standards in 2015. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Nevada
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The state does have a definition for college readiness. (Ref. Nevada Administrative Code 389.830, http://www.leg.state.nv.us/NAC/NAC-389.html   1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students starting with the graduation cohort of 2017 must take and/or pass an End of Course Exam for Math I, Math II and EOC I and II that aligned to Algebra I and Geometry and English II. The courses are required to take the exam, yet the law has yet to change the prescribed wording yet. 0.5
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Students starting with the graduation cohort of 2017 must take and/or pass and End of Course Exam for Math I, Math II and EOC I and II that aligned to Algebra I and Geometry and English II. The courses are required to take the exam, yet the law has yet to change the prescribed wording yet. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students starting with the graduation cohort of 2017 must take and/or pass an End of Course Exam for Math I, Math II and EOC I and II that aligned to Algebra I and Geometry and English II. The courses are required to take the exam, yet the law has yet to change the prescribed wording yet. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student performance in advanced coursework and participation in college entry exam. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.bscpcenter.org/resources/publications/Solutions_Issue_6_Summary_of_States_Strategies_for_ESEA_Priority_Schools_12-20131.pdf http://www.doe.nv.gov/Legislative/Underperforming_Schools_Turnaround/ Source: State department of education websites. Strong increase in power with establishment of Achievement School District in 2015. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Nevada adopted CCR standards in October 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
New Hampshire
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strenghth of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College- and career-readiness means that students graduate from high school prepared to enter and succeed in postsecondary opportunities—whether college or career—without need for remediation. ·        Students should graduate fully prepared to pursue the college and career options of their choice. ·       College ready refers to the full range of programs leading to valuable, recognized degrees, including community colleges and four-year colleges. ·       Career ready refers to employment opportunities with meaningful opportunities for advancement as well as career training programs that offer technical certification or other marketable skills. ·       Evidence and experience indicate that the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in college and career are greatly similar, and that all graduates will need some form of postsecondary education or training to succeed during their careers. To be college- and career-ready, students must graduate with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions necessary to succeed. These are the kinds of deeper learning outcomes that are at the heart of being college- and career-ready. ·       Knowledge, skills and dispositions are mutually reinforcing, and not contradictory. That is, evidence and experience confirm that education that advances application of knowledge through skills is more likely to result in student competency of the underlying, rigorous content knowledge. ·       The knowledge, skills and dispositions have concrete meaning and can be expressly taught, learned and measured. This will require multiple, robust measures or evaluation and assessment. ·       This same set of knowledge, skills and dispositions is also vital for student success in terms of citizenship, in addition to college and career readiness, including the ability to contribute and succeed in our increasingly diverse, democratic, global society” (U.S. Department of Education, 2013a). 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: School Performance and Accountability Enacted: 7/24/2013 Creates an accountability model that will best support schools and educators as they work to enable all students to progress toward college- and career-readiness with clearly defined learning outcomes; creates a student assessment system to promote and measure knowledge and skills that lead students to graduate from high schools ready for college and career; creates New Hampshire's system of educator support to promote the capacity of educators to deeply engage students in learning rigorous and meaningful knowledge, skills, and work-study practices for success in college, career, and citizenship. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college-and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://education.nh.gov/instruction/school_improve/index.htm Source: State department of education websites. No more designations since NCLB flexibility waiver—no longer tracking categories. 0
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New Hampshire adopted CCR standards in July 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
New Jersey
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college-and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College- and career-readiness refers to the content, knowledge, and skills that high school graduates must possess in English and mathematics—including, but not limited to, reading, writing, communications, teamwork, critical thinking, and problem solving—to be successful in any and all future endeavors. More specifically, to be college ready “means being prepared to enter and succeed in any postsecondary education or training experience, including study at two- and four-year institutions leading to a postsecondary credential (i.e., a certificate, license, associate’s or bachelor’s degree) without the need for remedial coursework,” and being career ready means that a high school graduate possesses not only the academic skills that employees need to be successful, but also both the technical skills, i.e., those that are necessary for a specific job function, and 21st Century employability skills, i.e., interpersonal skills, creativity and innovation, work ethics and personal responsibility, global and social awareness, etc., that are necessary for a successful career” (New Jersey Department of Education, 2012). 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college-and career-ready” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college-and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework, performance on college entry exam, participation in PSAT or ACT Aspire. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in CTE classes, WorkKeys assessments, or job training programs. 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.state.nj.us/education/code/current/title6a/chap33.pdf http://www.northjersey.com/news/state-takeovers-in-new-jersey-don-t-ensure-turnaround-1.1503169 Source: State department of education websites. Wide latitude granted to turnaround initiatives. State takeover still possible. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New Jersey adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 2
New Mexico
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career- readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career-Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college-and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework, performance on college entry exam, participation in PSAT or ACT Aspire. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://ped.state.nm.us/ped/PrioSchoolsDocs/7%20Turnaround%20Principles.pdf http://ped.state.nm.us/skandera/waiver/2016/NewMexico_NCLB_Waiver_Amendment_Dec2015.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Must implement 4 out of 7 turnaround principles for schools receiving a D/F. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New Mexico adopted CCR standards in October 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
New York
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The state does not have a definition for college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career-Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/100_18.html http://www.p12.nysed.gov/accountability/de/SchoolReceivership.html Source: State department of education websites. Whole school redesign and receivership possible. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New York adopted CCR standards in July 2010. New York was a PARCC member but did not elect to use PARCC exams. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
North Carolina
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The state does not have a definition for college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/program-monitoring/esea/renewal-request.pdf http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/schooltransformation/overview/used-models.pdf Source: State department of education websites Charter conversions allowable, loss of governance. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. North Carolina adopted CCR standards in June 2010. The governor signed Senate Bill 812 in July 2014 for North Carolina to review and possibly replace the CCSS. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison, retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
North Dakota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://www.nd.gov/dpi/about/corner/AprilMayJune2016/ Source: State department of education websites. Rejection of test-based accountability. 1
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. North Dakota adopted CCR standards in June 2011. They withdrew from PARCC in July 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Ohio
College- and Career-Readiness Scale
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “Ohio’s college- and career-ready definition is to ensure all students ‘Start Ready and Graduate Ready’ from their PreK-12 learning environment, qualified for success in a degree or credential-granting postsecondary education program, without remediation, and advanced training for a career of choice. Student readiness for college and careers includes: Content Knowledge: A deep core-content knowledge in academic and applicable technical content; 21st Century Skills: The effective use of academic and technical skills (e.g., research, problem-solving, systems thinking); Readiness Behaviors: The acquisition of readiness behaviors such as goal-setting, persistence, and resourcefulness; [and] College and Career Survival Skills: The acquisition of knowledge and skills needed to navigate successfully within the world of higher education and world of work” (U.S. Department of Education, 2013b). 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. ACT and SAT scores will be used starting with the high school class of 2018. Students have three pathways to demonstrate readiness for graduation: meeting minimum number of points on seven end of course exams, scoring remediation free scores on the ACT/SAT, or attaining a set score on the ACT WorkKeys tests with also attaining an approved credential. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Though intervention is recommended, the state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state includes ACT/SAT scores; the number of students receiving honors diplomas; and bonus points for students who score well on AP tests, IB tests, and College Credit Plus in the Prepared for Success component of their accountability system.   2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state includes industry-recognized credentials in 1 of 13 high-demand career fields in the Prepared for Success Component of the accountability system. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2016/02/10/the-education-mess-in-ohio-under-gov-john-kasich/ Source: State department of education websites State takeover and charter conversion allowed. For good performance, schools get awarded high progress (Momentum Award) or high-performing schools of honor (All A’s Award). 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Ohio adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They withdrew from PARCC in June 2015 and administered a new Ohio State Test in 2016. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Oklahoma
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. Oklahoma is implementing the College, Career and Citizen Ready (C³) plan, “which will ensure each student graduating with a diploma from an Oklahoma public school will be ready for college or career without the need for remediation and will be citizen ready, meaning they will know something about our government and the history of our nation” (State of Oklahoma, 2012). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take end of instruction assessments. 1
States require a college readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Identified students must be provided remediation, intervention, or opportunity to retake test until proficient. 1
Power States include college readiness indicators included in school accountability systems.  Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and college entry exams 3.5
States include career readiness indicators in the school accountability system  Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems The state measures student participation and performance in career classes, assessments, or job training programs.     3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings.  http://sde.ok.gov/sde/accountability-assessments  Source: State department of education websites State takeovers allowed 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Oklahoma adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They withdrew from PARCC in July 2013 and repeated the CCSS standards in June 2014. New standards were implemented in March 2016. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Oregon
College- and Career-Readiness Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College-and-Career-Ready Oregonians have acquired knowledge, skills, and professional behaviors that provide a starting point to enter and succeed in workplace, career training, or college courses leading to certificates or degrees. A College- and Career-Ready Oregonian… ·        Reasons, researches, [and] analyzes logically in order to investigate topics, and to evaluate, integrate, and present ideas and information; ·       Exhibits the following attributes: reflection, curiosity, openness, internal motivation, persistence, resilience, and flexibility; ·       Evaluates and/or applies prior knowledge of content and situations, including cultural understanding, to support comprehension; ·       Tracks and reflects on progress toward educational and vocational goals; ·       Employs effective speaking and active listening strategies for a range of purposes, audiences, and contexts; ·       Distinguishes between opinions, interpretations, and facts; ·       Uses technology to access and evaluate the reliability, credibility, and utility of information and is able to produce and/or present information; ·       Locates, analyzes, and critiques perceptions, information, ideas, arguments, and/or themes in a variety of text; ·       Produces clear, effective, and accurate writing grounded in textual evidence for a range of purposes, genres, and audiences; ·       Constructs clear and precise arguments to support their reasoning and to critique the reasoning of others; ·       Explains and applies mathematical concepts, carrying out mathematical procedures with precision and fluency in a variety of settings; ·       Solves a range of complex problems in pure and applied mathematics; ·       Makes productive use of knowledge and problem solving strategies; ·       Analyzes complex, real-world scenarios; ·       Has positive values such as: caring, equity, integrity, honesty, responsibility, and restraint; ·       Practices personal, time, and budget management through planning and decision-making; ·       Has a sense of support and empowerment; ·       Is able to self-advocate; ·       Engages in civic and community activities; ·        Works productively in new cultural settings; ·       Relates and responds to individuals from various cultures; ·       Works productively in teams; ·       Understands postsecondary education options, expectations, costs, and processes; ·       Understands and evaluates career options and pathways; ·       Understands workplace requirements and business cultures; ·       Has appropriate interviewing skills; ·       Is timely and reliable; ·       Has appropriate workplace behaviors and occupation-specific skills; ·       Is able to accept and use feedback; and ·       Has both personal and academic integrity and is an ethical decision maker” (Oregon Education Investment Board, 2014). 2
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State DOE There are rewards and sanctions but no provisions for loss of governance or stricter accountability measures.  Struggling schools are provided with greater autonomy and supports to design interventions. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Oregon adopted CCR standards in October 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Pennsylvania
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college and career readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career-Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on advanced coursework and college entry exam, participation in PSAT and ACT Aspire. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: PA School Code Districts of the first class lose governance based on accountability (Philadelphia) and are subject to a variety of turnaround measures led by a School Reform Commissions. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Pennsylvania adopted CCR standards in July 2010. They withdrew from both PARCC and SBAC in June 2013 and revised their standards in 2014. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Rhode Island
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career-Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.ride.ri.gov/Portals/0/Uploads/Documents/Information-and-Accountability-User-Friendly-Data/Accountability/Rhode-Island-ESEA-Flexibility-Request-Approved-05292012.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Closure and restarts of schools are possible. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Rhode Island adopted CCR standards in July 2010.
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
South Carolina
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016 Bill Title: School Opening Dates and Student Assessments Enacted: 6/38/2016 Requires each school district, following the 2018-2019 school year, to administer a standardized national test that documents student progress towards national college- and career-readiness benchmarks derived from empirical research and is widely accepted by higher education institutions. Bill Title: General Appropriations Bill Enacted: 7/15/2015 Of the funds appropriated or carried forward from the prior fiscal year, the Education Oversight Committee is directed to participate in public-private partnerships to promote innovative ways to transform the assessment of public education in South Carolina that support increased student achievement in reading and college and career readiness. Bill Title: Statewide Education Standards and Assessments Enacted: 5/30/2014 Requires SEA to implement new college and career readiness state content standards for SY2015-2016. 3
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take an assessment but their ACT and WorkKeys scores can be used in course selection. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college readiness indicators in their accountability system 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/apr/11/state-takeover-of-2-schools-is-only-2nd-attempt/ Source: State department of education websites. State takeover possible. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. South Carolina adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They withdrew from SBAC in April 2014. In May 2014, Governor Haley required the state to repeal CCSS and adopt new standards. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
South Dakota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career-Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Remedial coursework is available for students who underperform on the ACT. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://centeronschoolturnaround.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CenteronSchoolTurnaround_Snapshot_20151105.pdf http://willowlake.k12.sd.us/priority-school-information Source: State department of education websites. Collaborative turnaround model Required to change the school day, contract outsiders, Title I fund restrictions. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. South Dakota adopted CCR standards in November 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
New York
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. The state does not have a definition for college- and career-readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career-Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/100_18.html http://www.p12.nysed.gov/accountability/de/SchoolReceivership.html Source: State department of education websites. Whole school redesign and receivership possible. 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New York adopted CCR standards in July 2010. New York was a PARCC member but did not elect to use PARCC exams. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Texas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “College readiness is the level of preparation a student must attain in English language arts and mathematics courses to enroll and succeed, without remediation, in an entry-level general education course for credit in that same content area for a baccalaureate degree or associate degree program. It should be noted, however, that the measurement of college readiness through the Algebra II and English III assessments will be only one piece of information that students, parents, and schools will have in making readiness determinations. Algebra II and English III are courses students typically take in Grade 11; after students have taken these assessments and potentially met the college-readiness performance standards, they will continue to take higher-level courses (i.e., calculus and English IV) in Grade 12. Students will need to continue to acquire content knowledge and perform at a high level in these courses to fully prepare for postsecondary activities” (Texas Education Agency, 2010). 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. The Texas CCR standards are embedded into the state content standards known as the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for high school courses. Charts identifying the alignment of K-12 state standards with Texas CCRS are available at http://ritter.tea.state.tx.us/rules/tac/chapter074/ch074a.html#74.6 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016 Bill Title: Development and Alignment of Curricula Enacted: 7/7/2015 Relates to the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (Board), requires the Board, with the assistance of institutions of higher education, career and technical education experts, and college- and career-readiness experts, to establish alignment between the college- and career-readiness standards and the knowledge, skills, and abilities students are expected to demonstrate in career and technical education. TX HB1613 Enacted: 6/19/2015

Relating to the alignment of college readiness standards and expectations and essential knowledge and skills and the use to satisfy requirements concerning high school end-of-course assessment instruments of performance demonstrating satisfaction of certain college readiness benchmarks on certain assessment instruments designated by the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. Bill Title: College and Career Readiness in Public Education Enacted: 7/12/2013 Relates to periodic review and revision of college- and career- readiness standards in public education.
3
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take end-of-course assessments. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. If district determines that entering 12th grader is not on track for college readiness, then it must provide intervention opportunities. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 1.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in a coherent sequence of CTE courses
(In 2017-18, the new A–F system will evaluate the percentage of students who earn an industry certification).
1.5
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://www.texastribune.org/2016/08/16/failing-schools-facing-tougher-state-intervention/ Source: State department of education websites. Closure and state takeover allowed 4
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Texas adopted ELA and math CCR standards in 2008 and revised the math standards in 2012. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed nor there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Utah
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Rretrieved August 16, 2016. “Students should have education and career goals that will prepare them to experience fulfilling lives, actively participate as educated citizens, and thrive in a particularly competitive and global marketplace.” Source: Utah State Department of Education. (n.d.). College and Career Ready [website]. Retrieved from http://schools.utah.gov/college-and-career-ready/ 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016. BIll Title: School Grading Amendments Enacted: 4/22/2015 Amends provisions related to assigning a letter grade to a school based on the proficiency, learning gains, or college- and career- readiness of the school's students. Bill Title: School Grading Act Enacted: 4/3/2013 Modifies the School Grading Act; defines terms; specifies that the school grading system shall be known and referred to as "school grading"; modifies the criteria and procedures for determining school grades, including the calculation of learning growth, the calculation of a high school's graduation rate, the measurement of high school students' college- and career- readiness; requires the State Board of Education to annually develop a personal student achievement report for each student. 2
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Utah does require high schools to report percentage of high school students who are college ready based on ACT defined college- readiness benchmark. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. An intervention is under development. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://le.utah.gov/~2016/bills/static/SB0191.html Source: State department of education websites. Outside expert required to help implement a collaborative plan. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Utah adopted CCR standards in August 2010. They withdrew from SBAC in August 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Vermont
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “‘College- and Career-Readiness’ means the student’s ability to enter the workforce or pursue postsecondary education or training without the need for remediation. The student must possess the foundational skills and learning strategies necessary to begin studies in a career pathway in order to be considered college and career ready.” Source: Vermont State Board of Education. (2014). Education quality standards: State board rule 2000. Barre, VT: Author. Retrieved from http://education.vermont.gov/documents/EDU-FinalEQS_AsAdopted.pdf 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career- readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://dianeravitch.net/category/vermont/ Source: State department of education websites. Wholesale rejection of NCLB and ESSA identification of schools. 0
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Vermont adopted CCR standards in August 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Virginia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. Virginia defines college readiness as “the level of achievement students must reach to be academically prepared for success in entry-level credit-bearing college courses.” Source: Virginia Department of Education. (2012). Instruction: College & career readiness. Retrieved from http://www.doe.virginia.gov/instruction/college_career_readiness/index.shtml 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: Board of Education Graduation Requirements Enacted 4/20/2016 Requires the Board of Education to establish and require students to follow in the later years of high school alternative paths towards college- and career-readiness that include internships, externships, and credentialing. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take an end of year assessment. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Local school board must develop policy for students who fail end of course test. 1
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/District_Dossier/2014/06/state_takeover_law_struck_down.html Source: State department of education websites. State takeovers ruled unconstitutional. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Virginia adopted CCR math standards in 2009 and ELA standards in 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 1
Washington
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. “The purpose of the diploma is to declare that a student is ready for success in postsecondary education, gainful employment, and citizenship, and is equipped with the skills to be a lifelong learner. The diploma represents a balance between the personalized education needs of each student and society’s needs, and reflects, at its core, the state’s basic education goals.” Source: Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction. (2013). ESEA flexibility request. Washington, DC: Author. Retrieved from http://www2.ed.gov/policy/eseaflex/approved-requests/warequestamended022713.pdf 1
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-ready standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 1
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. No recent legislation with “college- and career-readiness” in the bill’s description. 0
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 1
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. An intervention is under development. 0.5
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework. 1
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.k12.wa.us/bulletinsmemos/Bulletins2015/B033-15AttachB.pdf Source: State department of education websites. 5-tier response, highest step involves firing of some staff, new curriculum, outside expert, but vague and TBD. 2
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Washington adopted CCR standards in July 2011.
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0

West Virginia

 

College- and Career-Readiness Indicators

Strength of Attribute

Specificity

State defines “college- and career-readiness.”

 

Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016.

“College- and Career-Readiness means that students exit high school prepared for success in a wide range of high-quality postsecondary opportunities. Specifically, college- and career- readiness refers to the knowledge, skills, and dispositions needed to be successful in postsecondary education and/or training that lead to gainful employment. Today’s workplace requires that all workers be lifelong learners in order to advance in their careers. Therefore, it is necessary that there be a common set of knowledge and skills that all individuals acquire to successfully transition into postsecondary education or the workplace. As individuals select specific career paths, they will then have to focus on the amount and type of additional knowledge and skills they should acquire to be successful in their chosen field. A student’s goals, desires, and interests influence the precise knowledge and skill profile necessary to be ready for success in their chosen postsecondary endeavors and the level of postsecondary education needed to accomplish a student’s individual career aspirations. All students should exit high school with a full understanding of the career opportunities available to them, the education necessary to be successful in their chosen pathway, and a plan to attain their goals” (West Virginia Department of Education, n.d.).

2

Consistency

Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation.

 

Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap.

Students are required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate.

 

1

Authority

Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness.

 

Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016.

Bill Title: College- and Career-Readiness Initiative

 

Enacted: 4/10/2013

 

Requires that before the 2014-2015 school year, SBE, the Higher Education Policy Commission, and the Council for Community and Technical College Education to collaborate in formally adopting uniform and specific college- and career- readiness standards for English/language arts and math. Requires the standards to be clearly linked to state content standards and based on skills and competencies rather than high school course titles. Requires that the standards be used for a determination of whether a student needs to enroll in a postsecondary remedial course. Requires SBE to develop a plan for gradually bringing the standards for a high school diploma and college and career readiness into uniformity, and report this plan to the Legislative Oversight Commission on Education Accountability not later than December 31, 2013.

1

High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness.

 

Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015.

Students are required to take the COMPASS in Grade 11.

1

States require a college-readiness intervention be offered a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment.

 

Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015.

Students not deemed college-ready on COMPASS are offered state board of education developed ELA and math transitional courses.

1

Power

States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system.

 

Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems.

The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system.

 

0

States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system.

 

Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems.

The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system.

 

0

States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings.

 

http://wvde.state.wv.us/esea/support/Priority.html

 

 

Source: State department of education websites.

Collaborative framework

2

Stability

Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted.

 

Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials.

West Virginia adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They repealed the CCSS in 2015.

0

States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter.

 

Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015.

No information identified.

 

Wisconsin requested that we not publish its state data.

Wyoming
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attributes
Specificity State defines “college- and career-readiness.” Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016. There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career- readiness. 0
Consistency Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation. Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap. Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate. 0
Authority Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness. Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Standards Legislation. Retrieved September 1, 2016. Bill Title: General Government Appropriations Enacted 3/5/2014 Reappropriates amounts in SEA's college- and career-readiness program and student ach. & support program to the 2015-2016 education testing and assessment account within the state auditor's office. 1
High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Students are not required to take assessments in high school to determine their college- and career-readiness. 0
States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment. 0
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 1.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://1ddlxtt2jowkvs672myo6z14-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Town-Hall-ESSA-School-Improvement.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Restructuring requirements recently suspended. 3
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Wyoming adopted CCR standards in June 2012. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Alabama
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://alex.state.al.us/ccrs/sites/alex.state.al.us.ccrs/files/accountability.pdf#search=accountability https://www.alsde.edu/sec/comm/Related%20Documents/Plan%202020-%20Accountability%20Overview%20July%202013.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Reward Schools, Priority Support and Focus Support schools. Failing Schools (lowest 6%) of students can leave (voucher eligibility criteria) If failing 10% of Title I money must be allocated to state-mandated intervention programs, 30-,60-90-day plans. SIG requirements: ·       Replace principal; ·       Implement rigorous, transparent equitable evals of staff; ·       Reward leaders and teachers who achieve gains; ·       High-quality PD; ·       Financial incentives, promotions; ·       Research-based instructional program; ·       Continuous use of student data; ·       Increase learning time; ·       Family and community engagement; and ·       Flexibility in staffing, time and budgets. 3
Alaska
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://education.alaska.gov/akaccountability/#c3gtabs-1415account https://education.alaska.gov/tls/Assessments/Accountability/AKAYPWkBk_120710.pdf Source: State department of education websites. All sanctions currently frozen because of new assessment and lack of comparison data. Public report cards, determine if schools met AYP. School determined to be deficient or in crisis develop a plan and receive funds from the state established via statute. Level 5 schools are restructured— reopen as charter, replace all or most of the staff, contract with management company, turn district over to the state.  These do not apply for non-Title I schools. District-level—develop a monitoring plan. Distinguished Districts 4
Arizona
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. The Accountability System is currently under review by the Arizona State Board of Education.   0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. The Accountability System is currently under review by the Arizona State Board of Education.   0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.azed.gov/accountability/files/2015/05/2015-arizona%E2%80%99s-transition-to-a-new-accountability-system-for-public-schools-and-districts.pdf https://www.alsde.edu/ofc/osl/SIG/SIG%20Transformation%20Model.pdf Source: State department of education websites. New A-F grades, Reward Schools, Focus Schools and Priority schools, focus on persistently low graduation rates. Rewards for High Performing and High Progress. Small grants to top schools to enhance academic instruction and curriculum development. Peer mentoring of lower performing schools. The Accountability System is currently under review by the Arizona State Board of Education.   1
Arkansas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress. (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. http://www.arkansased.gov/public/userfiles/Public_School_Accountability/School_Performance/ESEA_Focus_Priority_2015.pdf http://www.arkansased.gov/divisions/public-school-accountability/federal-programs/School%20Improvement%20Grants Priority Schools and Focus Schools. Lowest 5% receive SIG funds for a school intervention model. Removed Title I spending requirements (percentages). Failing districts assigned a site-based SIS after meeting with principals and superintendent and the state commissioner, PD plan, 3-year priority improvement plan with measurable objectives. Weekly reports to ADE, quarterly reports to State Board. Continued failing lose flexibility in use of state and/or federal categorical dollars. Convert to charter, close schools, replace principal, extend time, screen existing staff, rehire no more than half.   4
California
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. California adopted a College/Career Indicator as part of the accountability system during the September 2016 State Board meeting. The indicator takes into account high school diploma, SBAC achievement levels, CTE Career Pathway Completion, AP Exams, Dual Enrollment (Academic and CTE), and other important measures.  2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. California adopted a College/Career Indicator as part of the accountability system during the September 2016 State Board meeting.  The indicator takes into account high school diploma, SBAC achievement levels, CTE Career Pathway Completion, AP Exams, Dual Enrollment (Academic and CTE), and other important measures.  1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.cde.ca.gov/ta/ac/ti/schoolpireq.asp Source: State department of education websites. Support for all LEAs and schools (Level 1): ·       Various state and local agencies provide an array of support resources, tools, and voluntary technical assistance that all LEAs may use to improve student performance at the LEA and school level and narrow disparities among student groups across the LCFF priorities, including recognition for success and the ability to share promising practices. Differentiated Assistance (Level 2): ·       County superintendents (or the Superintendent of Public Instruction/California Department of Education, when provided to county offices of education) and the California Collaborative for Educational Excellence provide differentiated assistance for LEAs and schools, in the form of individually designed technical assistance, to address identified performance issues, including significant disparities in performance among student groups.  Intensive Intervention (Level 3): ·       The Superintendent of Public Instruction may require more intensive interventions for LEAs and/or schools with persistent performance issues and a lack of improvement over a specified time period. California Gold Ribbon Schools Program: The California Gold Ribbon Schools Award was created to honor schools while the California Distinguished Schools Program is on hiatus as California transitions to new assessment and accountability systems. 3
Colorado
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. We also include a matriculation rate (the % of students who enroll in two-year, four-year or CTE in the semester after graduation). 1.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. We also include a matriculation rate (the % of students who enroll in  two-year,  four-year or CTE in the semester after graduation). 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.cde.state.co.us/accountability/accountabilitysupplement-0 Source: State department of educationwebsites. We have an accountability clock, where schools/district cannot remain at a Priority Improvement/Turnaround rating for more than five years without a significant action taken (list of actions included in state law). State required turnaround strategies: Lead turnaround partner that uses research-based strategies, reorg. structure, create innovation schools, hiring management company, charter conversation. Many reward designations schools can receive, highest is ESEA Reward School. 4
Connecticut
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in CTE classes, WorkKeys assessments, or job training programs. 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/pressroom/ct_launches_next_generation_accountability_system_030216.pdf http://www.sde.ct.gov/sde/lib/sde/pdf/commissionersnetwork/commissioners_network_cohort_3_application_hs.pdf Source: State department of education websites Schools of Excellence   Commissioner's Network for Category 4 and 5 schools   The Turnaround Committee, in consultation with the School Governance Council, shall develop the Turnaround Plan in accordance with C.G.S. § 10-223h(d) and the guidelines issued by the Commissioner.

Accordingly, the Turnaround Plan will: 1. Provide a rigorous needs analysis informed by the operations and instructional audit. 2. Identify an evidence-based turnaround model, aligned to school needs and growth areas. 3. Provide robust strategies to secure, support, develop, evaluate, and retain top talent. 4. Summarize the school’s academic model, including curricula, assessments, and data-driven instruction. 5. Outline a comprehensive approach to build a positive school culture and climate. 6. Develop operational structures to effectively utilize time and resources.
3
Delaware
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://regulations.delaware.gov/AdminCode/title14/100/103.shtml Source: State department of education websites Long list of corrective action requirements but only one is required:  extend the year or day, decrease school level authority, appoint outside expert, restructure internal org., replace relevant school staff, new curriculum. One of the following:  flexible funding, performance incentives, renegotiate collective bargaining, decrease class size, implement comprehensive instructional reform, change scheduling, comm. support. Also creates Reward Schools 3
District of Columbia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.learndc.org/schoolprofiles/about/glossary/esea-accountability http://search.usa.gov/search?utf8=✓&affiliate=dc_dcps&query=priority+schools+corrective+action Source: State department of education websites. Developing Schools, Priority Schools, Focus Schools, Rewards Schools and Rising Schools Wide flexibility on corrective action plans. 1
Florida
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance in advanced coursework. 2
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Florida Consolidated State Application Accountability Workbook (MS … http://www.leg.state.fl.us/Statutes/index.cfm?App_mode=Display_Statute&Search_String=&URL=1000-1099/1008/Sections/1008.33.html Source: State department of education websites. School Recognition Program provides up to $100 for each FTE student in high performing districts. Mandates school choice, opportunity scholarships, NCLB Options: district-managed school, reassign students, close and reopen as a charter, outside contractor, hybrid policies. 4
Georgia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Scale
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures completion of career awareness lessons and portfolios in elementary school; completion of career inventories and an individual graduation plan in middle schools; and completion of CTAE pathways and earning credentials in high school. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://gosa.georgia.gov/accountability https://gosa.georgia.gov/sites/gosa.georgia.gov/files/IE2_State_Law_2013.pdf Source: State department of education websites SSAS Rewards, Priority, Focus and Reward Schools Failing school students are eligible for opportunity scholarships. Loss of governance = charter conversion, outside contractor, for profit or nonprofit, successful other school system. 4
Hawaii
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation in advanced coursework, performance on a college entry exam Strive HI System: http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/DOE%20Fo rms/StriveHI2016/StatewideSnapshot15-16.pdf 1
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Starting with the 2015-2016 SY, we have included CTE Concentrator counts in the school accountability system and are collaborating across state agencies under the New Skills for Youth (NSFY) grant to determine other career-focused accountability measures (such as industry-recognized credentials, assessments that measure soft/employability skills, participation in workforce experience opportunities such as internships and shadowing, etc.). 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://ecs.force.com/mbdata/mbprofall?Rep=HSA03 http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/VisionForSuccess/AdvancingEducation/StriveHIPerformanceSystem/Pages/Strive-HI-System-Steps.aspx Source: State department of education websites Restructuring required after Year 5. After Year 4: ●      Implementing a new curriculum ●      Appointing an outside expert as advisor ●      Extending the school day or year ●      Restructuring the school. Strive HI system groups schools into 5 categories—recognition for top 5%. 2
Idaho
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://boardofed.idaho.gov/k_12/accountability/Proposed%20Administrative%20Rule.pdf?cache=1473525977379 https://boardofed.idaho.gov/board_initiatives/Education_Improvement_Taskforce/Task%20Force%20for%20Improving%20Education_Final_09-06-13.pdf?cache=1473526074403 Source: State department of education websites. Removal of reward status for school and measures schools based on local strategic planning—only interact at the superintendent level. Changes made at the leadership level but not micromanagement. 1
Illinois
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. This will be determined once the CCR framework has been finalized.
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance in CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://ilga.gov/legislation/ilcs/fulltext.asp?DocName=010500050K2-3.25o http://www.isbe.net/nclb/pdfs/accountability_workbook10.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Spotlight Schools and rewards allowed in the School Code. Sanctions include public school choice, private school choice and supplemental services. 2
Indiana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework. 3
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.in.gov/legislative/iac/iac_title?iact=511 Source: State department of education websites. Sanctions—merger with nearby school that’s higher performing, assign a special management team, implement department recommendations, implement other options expressed at public hearing, including closing the school, revise school ops, PD, intervene with individual teachers and admins. Note: Indiana may delay penalizing schools based on accountability ratings: http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/state_edwatch/2016/11/with_just_half_of_its_students_passing_indiana_officials_considers_holding_off_on_istep.html 3
Iowa
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://www.educateiowa.gov/sites/files/ed/documents/ESEA%20AYP%20and%20SINADINA%20webinar%204%2014%2016.pdf https://www.educateiowa.gov/sites/files/ed/documents/2016-07-15ESSAIowaFAQ.pdf https://www.educateiowa.gov/sites/files/ed/documents/Guidance%20for%20Schools%20in%20Need%20of%20Assistance%20-%20FINAL%20-%202013%2010%2028.pdf Source: State department of education websites. SINA 1 and DINA 2 schools required to set aside 10% of money for PD. School choice removed for 2016-2017, statuses frozen. Title I Money must be set aside for Supplemental Education Services (SES). National Blue Ribbon Schools Districts of Distinction Restructuring allows:  reopen as a charter, replace all or most of school staff (including the principal) 4
Kansas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.ksde.org/Portals/0/SES/KIAS/KIAS%20Overview.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Can withhold funds or direct how funds are used, referral to Kansas Attorney General for action.  Different options allowed including conversion.  Principal must be fired but no automatic loss of local governance.  Rewards:  districts may use 50% maintenance of effort (MOE) reductions, official banner recognition for website. 3
Kentucky
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.lrc.ky.gov/statutes/statute.aspx?id=3556 http://www.fairtest.org/kentuckys-assessment-program Source: State department of education websites. Consequences include school/district improvement plans, eligibility to receive SIP funds, student transfer to successful schools. Districts in the top 5% are rewarded. 3
Louisiana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.louisianabelieves.com/docs/default-source/louisiana-believes/essa-statewide-listening-tour-presentation.pdf?sfvrsn=6 Source: State department of education websites. Transfer to Recovery School Districts (most schools in New Orleans are a part of this). Recognized with Good or Excellent status. 4
Maine
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://maine.gov/doe/accountability/ Source: State department of education websites. Lowest 25% of elementary school IDed (not high schools). Monitor Schools are given intensive supports, school improvement plan but no mandatory parameters. 1
Maryland
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance in advanced coursework. 2
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. State continues to identify priority schools. 1
Massachusetts
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. State takeover power: Level 5 is the most serious category in Massachusetts' accountability system, representing receivership. Districts are independently eligible for placement in Level 5 on the basis of a district review; the report of an appointed accountability monitor; a follow-up review report; quantitative indicators set out in state regulations; or failure of a Level 4 district to meet the ESE-approved benchmarks or goals in its improvement plan in a timely manner. 4
Michigan
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Michigans_Approach_to_ESSA_528680_7.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Partnership model with no mandatory requirements Michigan law allows the state to takeover schools based on A-F accountability ratings 4
Minnesota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.bscpcenter.org/resources/publications/Solutions_Issue_6_Summary_of_States_Strategies_for_ESEA_Priority_Schools_12-20131.pdf http://education.state.mn.us/MDE/dse/essa/ Source: State department of education websites. Rewards status but no mandated turnaround measure, principals can stay in place. 1
Mississippi
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. National credentials are included in the acceleration component of the accountability system. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.mde.k12.ms.us/docs/school-improvement-library/osi__webinar-training-revised__focus-schools.pdf?sfvrsn=2 Source: State department of education websites. Funding restricted, but district admins work with principals = turnaround partnership, no mandatory activities. 2
Missouri
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student performance on advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.bscpcenter.org/resources/publications/Solutions_Issue_6_Summary_of_States_Strategies_for_ESEA_Priority_Schools_12-20131.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Turnaround principles require principal and educator evaluation but no mandatory activities. 2
Montana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State department of education websites. Schools of Promise Initiative for turnaround schools but only federally funded with no state rewards or sanctions. 1
Nebraska
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://aquestt.com/resources/ Source: State department of education websites. Supportive structures and funding requirements but no turnaround specifics for Priority Schools. 1
Nevada
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student performance in advanced coursework and participation in college entry exam. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.bscpcenter.org/resources/publications/Solutions_Issue_6_Summary_of_States_Strategies_for_ESEA_Priority_Schools_12-20131.pdf http://www.doe.nv.gov/Legislative/Underperforming_Schools_Turnaround/ Source: State department of education websites. Strong increase in power with establishment of Achievement School District in 2015. 4
New Hampshire
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strenghth of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://education.nh.gov/instruction/school_improve/index.htm Source: State department of education websites. No more designations since NCLB flexibility waiver—no longer tracking categories. 0
New Jersey
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework, performance on college entry exam, participation in PSAT or ACT Aspire. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in CTE classes, WorkKeys assessments, or job training programs. 1
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.state.nj.us/education/code/current/title6a/chap33.pdf http://www.northjersey.com/news/state-takeovers-in-new-jersey-don-t-ensure-turnaround-1.1503169 Source: State department of education websites. Wide latitude granted to turnaround initiatives. State takeover still possible. 4
New Mexico
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework, performance on college entry exam, participation in PSAT or ACT Aspire. 3.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation and performance in advanced coursework. 3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://ped.state.nm.us/ped/PrioSchoolsDocs/7%20Turnaround%20Principles.pdf http://ped.state.nm.us/skandera/waiver/2016/NewMexico_NCLB_Waiver_Amendment_Dec2015.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Must implement 4 out of 7 turnaround principles for schools receiving a D/F. 3
New York
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/100_18.html http://www.p12.nysed.gov/accountability/de/SchoolReceivership.html Source: State department of education websites. Whole school redesign and receivership possible. 4
North Carolina
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.ncpublicschools.org/docs/program-monitoring/esea/renewal-request.pdf http://www.dpi.state.nc.us/docs/schooltransformation/overview/used-models.pdf Source: State department of education websites Charter conversions allowable, loss of governance. 4
North Dakota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://www.nd.gov/dpi/about/corner/AprilMayJune2016/ Source: State department of education websites. Rejection of test-based accountability. 1
Ohio
College- and Career-Readiness Scale
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state includes ACT/SAT scores; the number of students receiving honors diplomas; and bonus points for students who score well on AP tests, IB tests, and College Credit Plus in the Prepared for Success component of their accountability system.   2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state includes industry-recognized credentials in 1 of 13 high-demand career fields in the Prepared for Success Component of the accountability system. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://www.washingtonpost.com/news/answer-sheet/wp/2016/02/10/the-education-mess-in-ohio-under-gov-john-kasich/ Source: State department of education websites State takeover and charter conversion allowed. For good performance, schools get awarded high progress (Momentum Award) or high-performing schools of honor (All A’s Award). 4
Oklahoma
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college readiness indicators included in school accountability systems.  Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. Student participation and performance in advanced coursework and college entry exams 3.5
States include career readiness indicators in the school accountability system  Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems The state measures student participation and performance in career classes, assessments, or job training programs.     3
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings.  http://sde.ok.gov/sde/accountability-assessments  Source: State department of education websites State takeovers allowed 4
Oregon
College- and Career-Readiness Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: State DOE There are rewards and sanctions but no provisions for loss of governance or stricter accountability measures.  Struggling schools are provided with greater autonomy and supports to design interventions. 2
Pennsylvania
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on advanced coursework and college entry exam, participation in PSAT and ACT Aspire. 2.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. Source: PA School Code Districts of the first class lose governance based on accountability (Philadelphia) and are subject to a variety of turnaround measures led by a School Reform Commissions. 4
Rhode Island
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college readiness indicators in their accountability system 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/apr/11/state-takeover-of-2-schools-is-only-2nd-attempt/ Source: State department of education websites. State takeover possible. 4

South Carolina

 

College- and Career-Readiness Indicators

Strength of Attribute

Specificity

State defines “college- and career-readiness.”

 

Source: American Institutes for Research (AIR) Center on Great Teachers & Leaders. Databases on state teacher and principal evaluation policies. Retrieved August 16, 2016.

There is no publicly reported definition of college- and career-readiness.

0

Consistency

Students required to take high school courses aligned to college- and career-readiness standards for graduation.

 

Source: Achieve (2014). Closing the expectations gap.

Students are not required to take high school courses aligned to CCR standards in order to graduate.

 

0

Authority

Recent state legislation, rules, regulations, or executive orders explicitly supporting efforts related to college- and career-readiness.

 

Source: National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL). College- & Career- Readiness Legislation Dashboard. Retrieved September 1, 2016

Bill Title: School Opening Dates and Student Assessments

 

Enacted: 6/38/2016

 

Requires each school district, following the 2018-2019 school year, to administer a standardized national test that documents student progress towards national college- and career-readiness benchmarks derived from empirical research and is widely accepted by higher education institutions.

 

Bill Title: General Appropriations Bill

 

Enacted: 7/15/2015

 

Of the funds appropriated or carried forward from the prior fiscal year, the Education Oversight Committee is directed to participate in public-private partnerships to promote innovative ways to transform the assessment of public education in South Carolina that support increased student achievement in reading and college and career readiness.

 

Bill Title: Statewide Education Standards and Assessments

 

Enacted: 5/30/2014

 

Requires SEA to implement new college and career readiness state content standards for SY2015-2016.

 

3

High school students required to take assessments to determine their college- and career-readiness.

 

Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015.

Students are not required to take an assessment but their ACT and WorkKeys scores can be used in course selection.

 

 

0

States require a college-readiness intervention be offered to a student who scores below college-readiness benchmark on statewide mandated college-readiness assessment.

 

Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015.

The state does not require an intervention be offered to students who score below CCR benchmark on mandated assessment.

 

0

Power

States include college readiness indicators in the school accountability system.

 

Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems.

The state does not include college readiness indicators in their accountability system

 

0

States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system.

 

Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems.

The state does not include career-readiness indicators in their accountability system.

 

0

States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings.

 

http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2016/apr/11/state-takeover-of-2-schools-is-only-2nd-attempt/

 

Source: State department of education websites.

State takeover possible.

4

Stability

Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted.

 

Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials.

South Carolina adopted CCR standards in June 2010.

 

They withdrew from SBAC in April 2014. In May 2014, Governor Haley required the state to repeal CCSS and adopt new standards.

0

States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter.

 

Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015.

Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out.

 

1

South Dakota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://centeronschoolturnaround.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/CenteronSchoolTurnaround_Snapshot_20151105.pdf http://willowlake.k12.sd.us/priority-school-information Source: State department of education websites. Collaborative turnaround model Required to change the school day, contract outsiders, Title I fund restrictions. 2
New York
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college-readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.p12.nysed.gov/part100/pages/100_18.html http://www.p12.nysed.gov/accountability/de/SchoolReceivership.html Source: State department of education websites. Whole school redesign and receivership possible. 4
Texas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 1.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in a coherent sequence of CTE courses
(In 2017-18, the new A–F system will evaluate the percentage of students who earn an industry certification).
1.5
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://www.texastribune.org/2016/08/16/failing-schools-facing-tougher-state-intervention/ Source: State department of education websites. Closure and state takeover allowed 4
Utah
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://le.utah.gov/~2016/bills/static/SB0191.html Source: State department of education websites. Outside expert required to help implement a collaborative plan. 3
Vermont
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://dianeravitch.net/category/vermont/ Source: State department of education websites. Wholesale rejection of NCLB and ESSA identification of schools. 0
Virginia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on college entry exam. 0.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://blogs.edweek.org/edweek/District_Dossier/2014/06/state_takeover_law_struck_down.html Source: State department of education websites. State takeovers ruled unconstitutional. 3
Washington
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework. 1
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. http://www.k12.wa.us/bulletinsmemos/Bulletins2015/B033-15AttachB.pdf Source: State department of education websites. 5-tier response, highest step involves firing of some staff, new curriculum, outside expert, but vague and TBD. 2
West Virginia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include college- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state does not include career- readiness indicators in their accountability system. 0
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings.

http://wvde.state.wv.us/esea/support/Priority.html

Source: State department of education websites.

Collaborative framework 2

Wisconsin requested that we not publish its state data.

Wyoming
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attributes
Power States include college-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student participation in advanced coursework and performance on college entry exam. 1.5
States include career-readiness indicators in the school accountability system. Source: Center for American Progress (2016). Making the grade: A 50-state analysis of school accountability systems. The state measures student performance on WorkKeys, CTE courses, and whether they’ve earned CTE credentials and certificates. 2
States offer specific rewards or sanctions tied to accountability ratings. https://1ddlxtt2jowkvs672myo6z14-wpengine.netdna-ssl.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Town-Hall-ESSA-School-Improvement.pdf Source: State department of education websites. Restructuring requirements recently suspended. 3
Alabama
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. CCR standards were adopted in November 2010. Withdrew membership from both SBAC and PARCC on February 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Alaska
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Alaska adopted CCR standards in June 2012. The Commissioner of Education canceled AMP administration for the 2015-16 school year on April 1, 2016. Alaska will not face penalties for canceling their standardized assessment. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison.Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Arizona
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Arizona adopted CCR standards in June 2010. The Board of Education voted to replace them with new standards in December 2016.   Arizona withdrew from the PARCC in May 2014. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The state ruled that opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Arkansas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Arkansas adopted CCR standards in July 2010, which have been revised for the 2017-2018 school year. The state contract with PARCC ended in June 2015. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. State ruled that opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
California
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. California adopted CCR standards for ELA and Mathematics in August 2010. In March 2012, the State Board of Education adopted the CCSS systems implementation plan as a living document that identifies major phases and activities in the implementation of the CCSS throughout California's educational system. Common Core State Standards for ELA, modified March 2013. Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, modified January 2013. In 2015, California administered the first operational SBAC summative assessments as part of the California Assessment of Student Performance and Progress (CAASPP) system.  2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. The federal ESSA law minimally requires 95% of students statewide to participate in state-administered annual summative assessments. California law requires school districts to notify parents of their right to opt their students out of annual summative testing, and federal ESSA law now allows for this as well. 0
Colorado
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials In 2009, Colorado adopted aligned preschool through postsecondary standards leading to postsecondary and workforce readiness in the following content areas: comprehensive health; dance; drama and theater arts; mathematics; music; physical education; reading, writing and communicating; science; social studies; visual arts; and world languages.  Colorado incorporated the CCSS in its mathematics and reading, writing, and communicating standards in 2010. New CMAS science and social studies assessments were administered for the first time in 2014. New CMAS ELA and math assessments were administered for the first time in 2015. PSAT10 was administered for the first time in 2016. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. H.B. 15-1323 states (8) a) Each local education provider shall adopt and implement a written policy and procedure by which a student's parent may excuse the student from participating in one or more of the state assessments administered pursuant to section 27 22-7-1006.3.  b) If a parent excuses his or her student from participating in a state assessment, a local education provider shall not impose negative consequences, including prohibiting school attendance, imposing an unexcused absence, or prohibiting participation in extracurricular activities, on the student or on the parent.  c) A local education provider shall not impose an unreasonable burden or requirement on a student that would discourage the student from taking a state assessment or encourage the student's parent to excuse the student from taking the state assessment. 0
Connecticut
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Connecticut adopted CCR standards in July 2010. On September 7, 2016, a Connecticut Superior Court deemed the state funding formula to be unconstitutional and asked the state to overhaul its education system. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Delaware
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Delaware adopted CCR standards in August 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
District of Columbia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. D.C. adopted CCR standards in July 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Florida
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Florida adopted CCR standards in July 2010 and were revised in February 2014. Florida withdrew from PARCC in September 2013. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Georgia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Scale
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Georgia adopted CCR standards in July 2010 and renamed them in February 2015. Georgia withdrew from PARCC in September 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Neither Georgia law nor State Board of Education rules allow opting out of state and federal required assessments 1
Hawaii
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Hawai’i adopted CCR standards in July 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Hawaii does not have an opt-out policy and expects all students enrolled to participate in the required assessments. http://www.hawaiipublicschools.org/DOE Forms/Testing/testing1sheet.pdf 1
Idaho
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Idaho adopted CCR standards in January 2011. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Illinois
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Illinois adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Indiana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Indiana adopted CCR standards in August 2010 and withdrew from the CCSS consortium in 2014. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Iowa
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Iowa adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Kansas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Kansas adopted CCR standards in October 2010. They withdrew from SBAC in December 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Kentucky
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Kentucky adopted CCR standards in February 2010. KDE hosted open comment period and Kentucky Academic Standards are now under review. 2.5
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed without state consequence to the district. 1
Louisiana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Louisiana adopted CCR standards in July 2010 and revised their standards in 2015. They withdrew from PARCC in June 2014.  1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Maine
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Maine adopted CCR standards in April 2011. They withdrew from SBAC in June 2015. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Maryland
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Maryland adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. Local Education Agencies and schools are required to meet the 95% participation rate. 1
Massachusetts
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Massachusetts adopted CCR standards in July 2010. They will administer a revised assessment, the “Next Generation MCAS” starting Spring 2017. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Michigan
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Michigan adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Minnesota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Minnesota adopted math CCR standards in 2007 and ELA standards in 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Mississippi
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Mississippi adopted CCR standards in June 2010 and revisions were made to the standards in the fall of 2015. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Missouri
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Missouri adopted CCR standards in June 2010 and revised their standards in 2015. They withdrew from SBAC in July 2015.    1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Montana
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Montana adopted CCR standards in November 2011    3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Nebraska
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Nebraska adopted CCR ELA standards in 2014 and math standards in 2015. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Nevada
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Nevada adopted CCR standards in October 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
New Hampshire
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strenghth of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New Hampshire adopted CCR standards in July 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
New Jersey
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New Jersey adopted CCR standards in June 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 2
New Mexico
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New Mexico adopted CCR standards in October 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
New York
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New York adopted CCR standards in July 2010. New York was a PARCC member but did not elect to use PARCC exams. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
North Carolina
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. North Carolina adopted CCR standards in June 2010. The governor signed Senate Bill 812 in July 2014 for North Carolina to review and possibly replace the CCSS. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison, retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
North Dakota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. North Dakota adopted CCR standards in June 2011. They withdrew from PARCC in July 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.
Ohio
College- and Career-Readiness Scale
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials Ohio adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They withdrew from PARCC in June 2015 and administered a new Ohio State Test in 2016. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Oklahoma
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Oklahoma adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They withdrew from PARCC in July 2013 and repeated the CCSS standards in June 2014. New standards were implemented in March 2016. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Oregon
College- and Career-Readiness Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Oregon adopted CCR standards in October 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Pennsylvania
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Pennsylvania adopted CCR standards in July 2010. They withdrew from both PARCC and SBAC in June 2013 and revised their standards in 2014. 1
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Rhode Island
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Rhode Island adopted CCR standards in July 2010.
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
South Carolina
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. South Carolina adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They withdrew from SBAC in April 2014. In May 2014, Governor Haley required the state to repeal CCSS and adopt new standards. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
South Dakota
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. South Dakota adopted CCR standards in November 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
New York
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. New York adopted CCR standards in July 2010. New York was a PARCC member but did not elect to use PARCC exams. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Texas
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Texas adopted ELA and math CCR standards in 2008 and revised the math standards in 2012. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed nor there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Utah
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Utah adopted CCR standards in August 2010. They withdrew from SBAC in August 2013. 2
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
Vermont
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Vermont adopted CCR standards in August 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1
Virginia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Virginia adopted CCR math standards in 2009 and ELA standards in 2010. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 1
Washington
College- and Career- Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Washington adopted CCR standards in July 2011.
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is allowed, there are exemptions to state testing law that parents can use to opt their children out, or it is up to the district to choose to opt out without there being a state consequence. 0
West Virginia
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attribute
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. West Virginia adopted CCR standards in June 2010. They repealed the CCSS in 2015. 0
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. No information identified.

Wisconsin requested that we not publish its state data.

Wyoming
College- and Career-Readiness Indicators Strength of Attributes
Stability Changes in CCR standards or assessments since the CCR standards were first adopted. Source: Public reports and personal communication with state department of education officials. Wyoming adopted CCR standards in June 2012. 3
States have legislation or Board of Education rules clearly stating that parents are/are not allowed to opt their students out of assessments, provide opportunities for exemptions, or have not released a decision regarding this matter. Source: Education Commission of the States (ECS). 50-State comparison. Retrieved December 10, 2015. Opting out is not allowed or there is a state consequence if a district chooses to opt out. 1

By now, all 50 states and the District of Columbia have implemented K-12 standards that meet college- and career-readiness (CCR) expectations. They have also implemented a wide range of other reform initiatives designed to support the CCR environment, including, but not limited to, new accountability systems, assessments, graduation requirements, and testing policies. Our latest series of interactive maps capture a snapshot of these activities beginning in the year 2007, when the first state officially adopted CCR standards, through September 2016. The information provided in these maps are updated through December 2016.

Our organizing framework is the policy attributes theory which hypothesizes that there are five components to successful policy implementation: specificity, consistency, authority, power, and stability. We use these five different attributes to describe the CCR-aligned activities across each state. Sources for this information include American Institutes for Research (AIR), the Education Commission of the States (ECS), the National Conference of State Legislatures (NCSL), Achieve, and the Center for American Progress. There are many more published and unpublished policy activities that C-SAIL has not documented in these interactive maps. Our hope is to display examples of how all 50 states and D.C. compare across a smallsample of relevant actions to make students more college- and career-ready.

Below is an overview of the five attributes associated with effective policy designs and implementation and an explanation of the scale we used to indicate how strongly linked the policy activities are to the attributes in each state. Please note that the scales are not intended to be evaluative—they merely highlight differences in the ways states have undergone implementation of CCR aligned standards-based reform.

Notes on Methodology:

  1. We gave each state and D.C. one month to verify the information in each map with the option to respond with edits, advising that silence would be interpreted as approval of the data. Forty-six percent of states responded to our requests. To submit corrections to state data, please email gse-csail@gse.upenn.edu.
  2. The data for D.C. includes policies from both the Office of the State Superintendent of Education (OSSE) and the D.C. Public Schools (DCPS) Central Office, since D.C. only has the one district and DCPS policies largely affect school and teacher performance.
  3. Wisconsin requested that we not publish its state data.

Mean = 10.47
SD = 3.63

Overall

The Overall score associated with each state is the sum of all the other scores that the state received regarding specificity, consistency, authority, power, and stability.

Rating Key

Mean = 0.92
SD = 0.73

Feature:

Specificity

Specificity describes how extensive, detailed, and/or prescriptive a policy is. The explicitness of the goals, guidelines, and resources may help schools implement policies with a greater degree of fidelity.

Specificity Rating Key

Mean = 0.52
SD = 0.50

Feature:

Consistency

Consistency describes the extent to which various policies are aligned and how policies relate to each other (or support each other).

Consistency Rating Key

Mean = 1.35
SD = 1.54

Feature:

Authority

Authority describes how policies gain legitimacy and status through persuasion (e.g., rules or law, historical practice, or charismatic leaders). Policies have authority when state and district leaders, parents, community members, and other stakeholders devote time and resources to the reform initiative, which sends the clear signal that the endeavor is an institutional priority. Policies are also deemed authoritative when stakeholders participate in the decision-making processes or when they demonstrate their investment in the reform.

Authority Rating Key

Mean = 5.11
SD = 2.85

Feature:

Power

Power describes how policies are reinforced and enacted through systems of reward/sanction.

Power Rating Key

Mean = 2.65
SD = 1.12

Feature:

Stability

Stability describes the extent to which policies change or remain constant over time.

Stability Rating Key